Microstructure of Steels and Cast Irons

Mục Lục

First Part

The history of iron and steel ~ of swords and

ploughshares

1 From lron to steel
1-1 The long history of iron ………………………………………. 3
1-2 The three sources ofiron ………………………………………. 4
1-3 Early ironmaking technology …………………………………… 6
1-4 The spread of ironmaking technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 8
2 Of swords and swordmaklng
2-1 Swordmaking, the cuning edge of metallurgical history ………………… 13
2-2 The Celtic swordmaking tradition ………………………………. 14
2-3 Merovingian and Carolingian swords …………………………….. 16
2-4 True or oriental Damascus steel swords produced using wootz steel ………… 20
2-5 Mechanical or pattern welded damascene swords …………………….. 20
2-6 In search of a lost art . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 21
2-7 Asiatic swords …………………………………………….. 27
2-8 Contemporary damascene structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 31

PartZ

The Genesis of Microstructures
3 The principal phases in steels
3-1 The phases of pure iron . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 37
3-2 Solid solutions ……………………………………………. 39
3-3 Order-disorder transformations …………………………………. 40
3-4 Intermediate phases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 42
4 The basie phase dlagrams
4-1 Equilibria between condensed phases …………………………….. 47
4-2 Theoretically calculated phase diagrams …………………………… 53
4-3 Experimentally determined phase diagram …………………………. 56
4-4 The Fe-Cr-C system : liquidus surf ace ……………………………. 56
4-5 The Fe-Cr-C system : isothermal sections and isopleths ………………… 60
4-6 The Fe-Cr-C system : solidification paths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 62
4-7 The Fe-Cr-C system : the austenite field …………………………… 65
4-8 The Fe-Cr-Ni system ……………………………………….. 69
4-9 The Fe-Mn-S system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 71
4-10 The Fe-Cu-Co system ………………………………………. 75
4-11 The Fe-Mo-Cr system ……………………………………… 78

LA MICROSTRUCTURE DES ACIERS ET DES FONTES

4-12 The Fe-C-V system ………………………………………… 84
4-13 Mixed carbides …………………………………………… 86
5 The formation of solidlficatlon strudures
5-1 Solute partitioning phenomena during solidification ………………….. 91
5-2 Local solute partitioning ……………………………………… 94
5-3 The growing solid interface ……………………………………. 95
5-4 The evolution of dendritic microstructures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 101
5-5 Secondary dendrite arm spacings ………………………………. 106
5-6 Eutectic microstructures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 108
5-7 Peritectic microstructures ……………………………………. 116
6 Liquld/solld strudural transformatlons
6-1 Experimental techniques : controlled solidification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 121
6-2 Experimental techniques: thermal analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 124
6-3 Solidification paths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 127
6-4 Metastable solidification paths ………………………………… 138
6-5 Peritectic transformations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 141
7 Gralns, graln boundarles and interfaces
7-1 General aspects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 151
7-2 Characteristics associated with grain boundaries …………………….. 157
8 Dlffusion
8-1 Chemical diffusion .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 163
8-2 Zones affected by diffusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 165
8-3 Case hardening . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 168
8-4 DifIUsion couples …………………………………………. 172
8-5 Galvanising …………………………………………….. 173
9 The decomposltlon of austenite
9-1 The different types of solid state transformatione ……………………. 179
9-2 The representation of solid state phase transformations ………………. 180
9-3 Growth mechanisms ……………………………………….. 184
9-4 DifIUsive exchanges at interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 187
9-5 The formation of pro-eutectoid ferrite and cementite ………………… 191
10 The pearllte transformation
10-1 The eutectoid transformation in the Fe-C system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 195
10-2 The kinetics of pearlite transformation .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 199
10-3 The influence of alloying elements …………………………….. 200
10-4 The re-dissolution of pearlite ………………………………… 206
11 The martenslte transformatlon
11-1 Displacive transformations in the Fe-C system …………………….. 209
11-2 Characteristics of the martensite transformation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 211
11-3 The morphology of martensite ……………………………….. 215
11-4 Softening and tempering of martensite ………………………….. 219
12 The bainlte transformation
12-1 Bainite structures ………………………………………… 223
12-2 Upper bainite …………………………………………… 225
12-3 Lower bainite …………………………………………… 232
13 Preclpltatlon
13-1 Continuous precipitation …………………………………… 239
13-2 Discontinuous precipitation …………………………………. 245

x

13-3 Precipitate growth ………………………………………… 248

Part 3

S1teels and cas1t irons

14 Steel Design
14-1 Mechanical properties ……………………………………… 255
14-2 The effects of alloying elements ……………………………….. 263
14-3 The common alloying additions ………………………………. 265
15 Solidification macrostructures
15-1 Solidification of steels ……………………………………… 269
15-2 Solidification structure of a continuously cast steel …………………. 270
15-3 Solidification structures in large conventional ingots …………………. 273
15-4 Quality of solidification structures ……………………………… 276
16 Macro- and microstructures of sintered powder products
16-1 Sintering ………………………………………………. 281
16-2 Steels produced by solid state sintering ………………………….. 284
16-3 Steels produced by transient liquid phase sintering ………………….. 286
16-4 Sintered Fe-Cu-Co composite alloys ……………………………. 287
17 Plain carbon and low alloy steels
17-1 Mild steels for deep drawing …………………………………. 289
17-2 Low alloy structural steels …………………………………… 291
17-3 The TRIP steels ………………………………………….. 295
18 Quench hardening steels
18-1 Hypoeutectoid steels ……………………………………… 297
18-2 Hypereutectoid steels ………………………………………. 300
18-3 Tool steels and high speed steels ………………………………. 302
19 Stainless steels
19-1 Martensitic stainless steels …………………………………… 305
19-2 Austenitic stainless steels ……………………………………. 313
19-3 Nitrogen-containing stainless steels …………………………….. 318
19-4 Manganese-containing austenitic steels ………………………….. 320
19-5 Resulphurised stainless steels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 321
19-6 Ferritic stainless steels ……………………………………… 323
19-7 Duplex stainless steels ……………………………………… 325
20 Heat resisting steels and iron-containing superalloys
20-1 Ferritic heat resisting steels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 331
20-2 Austenitic heat resisting steels ………………………………… 335
20-3 Precipitation hardened alloys …………………………………. 338
21 Cast irons
21-1 Phases and microstructural constituents in cast irons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 347
21-2 White cast irons ………………………………………….. 347
21-3 Grey cast irons …………………………………………… 349
21-4 Spheroidal graphite (SG) cast irons …………………………….. 356
21-5 The heattreatment of grey (SG) cast irons ……………………….. 363
22 Appendices

xi

LA MICROSTRUCTURE DES ACIERS ET DES FONTES

22-1 General comments ………………………………………… 367
22-2 Interface energies …………………………………………. 367
22-3 Chromium and nickel equivalents ……………………………… 367
22-4 Etching reagents …………………………………………. 368
22-5 Characteristic diffusion lengths ………………………………… 369
22-7 Effects of alloying elements in steels ……………………………. 370
22-6 Empirical formulae for determining the Ms and Mf temperatures ………… 370
22-8 Typical hardness values of various constituents found in steels ……………

 

 

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