Engineering of Biomaterials

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1 Introduction………………………………………. 1
References………………………………………… 4
2 Biomaterials: Characteristics and Properties ………………. 5
2.1 Properties of Biomaterials………………………….. 7
2.1.1 Physical Properties …………………………. 8
2.1.2 Chemical Properties ………………………… 10
2.1.3 Mechanical Properties ……………………….. 10
2.2 Surface Modification—Biomaterial–Tissue Interactions ……… 12
References………………………………………… 14
3 Metallic Biomaterials ……………………………….. 17
3.1 Development of Metallic Biomaterials …………………. 17
3.2 Characteristics of Metallic Biomaterials ………………… 18
3.2.1 Biocompatibility …………………………… 19
3.2.2 Mechanical Properties ……………………….. 19
3.2.3 Corrosion Resistance………………………… 22
3.2.4 Wear Resistance …………………………… 23
3.2.5 Osseointegration …………………………… 23
3.3 Metallic Biomaterials …………………………….. 24
3.3.1 Stainless Steel …………………………….. 24
3.3.2 Titanium and Titanium Alloys …………………. 25
3.3.3 Cobalt-Chrome-Based Alloys ………………….. 26
3.3.4 Magnesium-Based Alloys …………………….. 26
3.3.5 Tantalum………………………………… 26
3.3.6 Zirconium-Based Alloys ……………………… 27
References………………………………………… 27
4 Ceramic Biomaterials ……………………………….. 29
4.1 Obtention, Processing, and Application of Bioceramics ……… 29
4.2 Properties of Bioceramics………………………….. 29

vii

4.3 Types of Bioceramics…………………………….. 32
4.3.1 Alumina (Al2O3)…………………………… 32
4.3.2 Zirconia (ZrO2) ……………………………. 33
4.3.3 Calcium Phosphate Ceramics ………………….. 33
4.3.4 Calcium Phosphate Cements (CPC) ……………… 34
4.3.5 Bioglasses and Vitroceramics ………………….. 35
References………………………………………… 37
5 Polymeric Biomaterials ………………………………. 39
5.1 Fundamental Concepts of Polymers …………………… 39
5.1.1 Synthetic Polymers Used as Biomaterials ………….. 41
5.1.2 Concepts of Degradation, Biodegradation, Bioabsorption
and Bioreabsorption ………………………… 41
5.1.3 Main Polymers Biodegradable, Bioreabsorbable,
Bioerodible Utilized as Biomaterials……………… 46
5.2 Polymeric Hydrogels …………………………….. 46
5.2.1 Polymers Used as Hydrogels and Applications of Same as
Biomaterials ……………………………… 48
References………………………………………… 49
6 Composite Biomaterials ……………………………… 51
6.1 Types and Properties of Discontinuous Phases……………. 54
6.2 Polymeric Phases for Biomaterials ……………………. 55
6.3 Metallic Phases for Biomaterials……………………… 56
6.4 Ceramic Phases for Biomaterials …………………….. 56
6.5 Selection of Properties Between Materials and Tissues………. 57
References………………………………………… 59
7 Biomaterials Sterilization Methods………………………. 61
7.1 Sterilization Methods …………………………….. 62
7.1.1 Ethylene Oxide ……………………………. 63
7.1.2 Hydrogen Peroxide Plasma ……………………. 64
7.1.3 Autoclave ……………………………….. 65
7.1.4 Irradiation Sterilization ………………………. 66
References………………………………………… 72
8 Biomaterials: Degradation and Effects on Living Tissue ………. 75
8.1 Biomaterial-Receptor and Receptor-Biomaterial Interactions…… 76
8.2 Behavior of the Material in the in Vivo Condition,
Applications, and Requirements—Case Studies …………… 78
8.2.1 Metallic Materials ………………………….. 78
8.2.2 Ceramic Materials………………………….. 81
8.2.3 Polymeric Materials ………………………… 82
References………………………………………… 85

 

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